A world of sig. 69, pp 530–48. The emotional pain of separation, shame and broken relationships are also consequences that first instance of moral evil. God's condemnation of evil is subsequently believed to be executed and expressed in his created world; a judgement that is unstoppable due to God's all powerful will; a constant and eternal judgement that becomes announced and communicated to other people on Judgment Day. Theodicy. C. S. Lewis writes: "We can, perhaps, conceive of a world in which God corrected the results of this abuse of free will by His creatures at every moment: so that a wooden beam became soft as grass when it was used as a weapon, and the air refused to obey me if I attempted to set up in it the sound waves that carry lies or insults. Although Plantinga claimed that his Free Will Defense offered merely possible and not necessarily actual reasons God might have for allowing evil and suffering, it may be difficult for other theists to embrace his defense if it runs contrary to what theism says is actually the case in heaven. So, if one of them were faced with three possible courses of action—two of which were morally good and one of which was morally bad—this person would not be free with respect to the morally bad option. [141][142][143] According to Nursi, the temporal world has many evils such as the destruction of Ottoman Empire and its substitution with secularism, and such evils are impossible to understand unless there is an afterlife. If one is true, the other is false; if one is false, the other is true. [89] The PHOG defense, states Bryan Frances, not only leaves the co-existence of God and human suffering unanswered, but raises questions about why animals and other life forms have to suffer from natural evil, or from abuse (animal slaughter, animal cruelty) by some human beings, where hidden moral lessons, hidden social good and such hidden reasons to reconcile God with the problem of evil do not apply. Omnipotence, according to Plantinga, is the power to do anything that is logically possible. [13], Hinduism is a complex religion with many different currents or religious beliefs[166] Its non-theist traditions such as Samkhya, early Nyaya, Mimamsa and many within Vedanta do not posit the existence of an almighty, omnipotent, omniscient, omnibenevolent God (monotheistic God), and the classical formulations of the problem of evil and theodicy do not apply to most Hindu traditions. The logical problem of evil (including providence) involves mystery, requiring that Christians maintain doctrinal tensions in biblical proportion. Can God create a round square? According to his Free Will Defense, God could not eliminate the possibility of moral evil without at the same time eliminating some greater good. Most philosophical debate has focused on the suggestion that God would want to prevent all evils and therefore cannot coexist with any evils (premises 4 and 6), with defenders of theism (for example, St. Augustine and Leibniz) arguing that God could very well exist with and allow evil in order to achieve a greater good. The existence of evil and suffering in our world seems to pose a serious challenge to belief in the existence of a perfect God. The long evolutionary process made humans into a distinguishable species capable of reasoning and responsibility, but they must now (as individuals) go through a second process of “spiritualization” or “soul-making,” during which they become “children of God.” According to Hick, the suffering and travails of this life are part of the divine plan of soul-making. [32], A theodicy,[33] on the other hand, is more ambitious, since it attempts to provide a plausible justification—a morally or philosophically sufficient reason—for the existence of evil and thereby rebut the "evidential" argument from evil. [142] The faithful suffered in this short life, so as to be judged by God and enjoy heaven in the never-ending afterlife. Shankara attributes evil and cruelty in the world to Karma of oneself, of others, and to ignorance, delusion and wrong knowledge,[174] but not to the abstract Brahman. An essay on the principle of population. [81] Scholars who criticize the privation theory state that murder, rape, terror, pain and suffering are real life events for the victim, and cannot be denied as mere "lack of good". "[104] Theologian Joseph Onyango narrows that definition saying that "If we take the essentialist view of [biblical] ethics... evil is anything contrary to God's good nature...(meaning His character or attributes). The logical form of the argument tries to show a logical impossibility in the coexistence of God and evil, [1] [3] while the evidential form tries to show that given the evil in the world, it is improbable that there is an omnipotent, omniscient, and wholly good God. As an attempt to rebut the logical problem of evil, it is strikingly successful. [62]:158–168, Thomas Aquinas suggested the afterlife theodicy to address the problem of evil and to justify the existence of evil. Therefore, the logical problem of evil fails to prove any inconsistency between God and evil. It is also important to note that, simply because Plantinga’s particular use of free will in fashioning a response to the problem of evil runs into certain difficulties, that does not mean that other theistic uses of free will in distinct kinds of defenses or theodicies would face the same difficulties. Peterson (1998, p. 9) claims that the problem of evil is a kind of “moral protest.” In asking “How could God let this happen?” people are often claiming “It’s not fair that God has let this happen.” Many atheists try to turn the existence of evil and suffering into an argument against the existence of God. We can start by granting Plantinga the possibility of trans-world depravity. The implausibility of (MSR2) is taken by some to be a serious defect. God can forcibly eliminate evil and suffering (as in W2) only at the cost of getting rid of free will. But evil of this sort is the best hope, I think, and maybe the only effective means, for bringing men to such a state. Eleonore Stump (1985) offers another response to the problem of evil that brings a range of distinctively Christian theological commitments to bear on the issue. It seems, then, that the Free Will Defense might be adapted to rebut the logical problem of natural evil after all. That certainly runs contrary to central doctrines of theism. The problem of evil is also a theore… [76] The other is a more modern version of "deny evil", suggested by Christian Science, wherein the perception of evil is described as a form of illusion. If God were all-powerful, God would be able to do something about all of the evil and suffering. These include the claims: 1) God exists 2) God is omnipotent 3) God is omniscient 4) God is perfectly good and 5) Evil exists. ), Mackie, J. L. 1955. [149] The Jewish thinkers have argued that either God did not care about the torture and suffering in the world He created—which means He is not omnibenevolent, or He did not know what was happening—which means He is not omniscient. [54] The dissenters state that while explaining infectious diseases, cancer, hurricanes and other nature-caused suffering as something that is caused by the free will of supernatural beings solves the logical version of the problem of evil, it is highly unlikely that these natural evils do not have natural causes that an omnipotent God could prevent, but instead are caused by the immoral actions of supernatural beings with free will whom God created. Through the whole compass of human knowledge, there are no inferences more certain and infallible than these. He claimed there is a reason all possible theodicies must fail. The reconciliation of "faithful" humankind will have been accomplished through Christ, and nonconforming humans and demons will have been destroyed. (36) God is not able to contradict himself. By allowing opposition and temptations in mortality, God created an environment for people to learn, to develop their freedom to choose, and to appreciate and understand the light, with a comparison to darkness[131][132], This is a departure from the mainstream Christian definition of omnipotence and omniscience, which Mormons believe was changed by post-apostolic theologians in the centuries after Christ.


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